A statement with respect to the 1887 Michelson and Morley Ether experiment

I am of the unequivocal opinion that the Earth is moving through a fluid like ether which is space itself

Having conducted extensive research I am of the unequivocal opinion that the Earth is moving through a fluid-like ether which is space itself. I have come to this conclusion for a number of important reasons. I feel that the primary reason is that in the physics community there remains confusion and antagonism with respect to the original 1887 Michelson and Morley ether experiment results. This is together with the later Dayton Miller results of 1929 to 1932. In my opinion this is because of the divorce between physics theoreticians and down to earth field experimentalists. Loyd S Swenson seems to affirm these words when he said: “The origins of relativity theory may be explained in various ways, but one neglected factor in that summation is the way different canons of scholarship in physics and history have effected the selection of data and the narration of relationships between experiment and theory…” “…linear and sequential development that cannot be justified.”

The importance of these words are that physics history has lead to the contemporary conclusion that the original 1887 Michelson and Morley experiment was a null result, and this is incorrect. I discuss this matter at greater length in my blog entitled “The day science lost its way“. This blog also looks at the politics amongst physicists and analysts that dominated the debate at that time. Extensive quotes from different parties are included in it as well.

A contemporary independent science analyst [M.P.] has written the following words with respect to this debate. The analyst points out that the words in a statement made by Einstein in 1920 in respect to his General Relativity theory are in contradiction with later experimental findings of other distinguished physicists at that time. I cite the analyst’s words as follows:

Quote:

“Ether and the Theory of Relativity
Albert Einstein, May 5th, 1920

Ether and the Theory of Relativity

“….according to the general theory of relativity space is endowed with physical qualities; in this sense, therefore, there exists an ether……….But this ether may not be thought of as endowed with the quality characteristic of ponderable media, as consisting of parts which may be tracked through time. The idea of motion may not be applied to it…”

What this means is that in General Relativity Theory, space has physical properties, and therefore can be considered to be an ether. However unlike a liquid or gas which consists of molecules, the space of General Relativity Theory does not consist of parts that can be identified as being in motion.

In addition, General Relativity Theory predicts that measurements of the speed of light are not affected by motion through space. This implies that experiments such as the Michelson Morley experiment that attempt to detect such motion, by comparing the speeds of light in different directions, should detect no effect.

However, on page 206 of the following paper, one reads the following:
The Ether-Drift Experiment and the Determination of the Absolute Motion of the Earth

Dayton C. Miller, Case School of Applied Science
July 1933, Reviews of Modern Physics, Volume 5.

“……Michelson and Morley performed the historic experiment in the northwest room of the basement of the Main Building of Adelbert College in Cleveland in 1887; their entire series of observations was of six hours’ duration…….

……The brief series of observations was sufficient to show clearly that the effect did not have the anticipated magnitude. However, and this fact must be emphasized, the indicated effect was not zero; the sensitivity of the apparatus was such that the conclusion, published in 1887, stated that the observed relative motion of the earth and ether did not exceed one fourth of the earth’s orbital velocity. This is quite different from a null effect now so frequently imputed to this experiment by writers on Relativity….”

This implies that the Michelson Morley experiment DID detect motion relative to space which contradicts the prediction by General Relativity Theory that such experiments couldn’t detect such motion.

Dayton C. Miller was confident of what he said, because he had repeatedly performed Michelson Morley type experiments a sufficient number of times to eventually arrive at a speed and direction for the motion of the earth relative to space (or relative to ether if you prefer that term).”

The same analyst went on to discuss Einstein’s concept of General Relativity ether with respect to the Dayton Miller results.

Quote:

“In General Relativity Theory space is an ether but the idea of motion cannot be applied to it. So according to this theory, even though the earth is orbiting our sun at tremendous speed, and orbiting the center of our galaxy at even greater speed, we are entitled to consider the earth to be at rest relative to space itself.

This is a comforting idea, though the experiments by Dayton C. Miller and Michelson Morley seemed to show that the earth is in fact moving relative to space.

However, a feature of these experiments is that the speeds

Varied wildly, and,
Their values calculated using Newtonian physics theory were too low to be credible.

Eg. Here are the speeds calculated by Miller using Newtonian physics theory during the course of a 24 hour period. The heavy black line is a running average.

Notice that the speeds vary a lot and are only about 5 .. 15 km/s, whereas the orbital speed of the earth is about 30 km/s, so to obtain credible speeds Miller had to multiply his measured speeds by a factor that would make his final values compatible with the orbital speed of the earth. That wasn’t difficult, but he didn’t have a theory to explain why this factor was needed.

The lack of theoretical justification for this factor he introduced would have made his results suspect.
And as the large variations of determined speed are not consistent with the concept of the earth traveling through a motionless ether (which was the traditional idea of an ether), that raised questions about his results as well.

Perhaps for those reasons, most physicists chose to ignore his results in favor of relativity theory which simply predicted that detecting motion relative to space couldn’t be done.”

In summary, these words mean:

1] The dynamic three space theory of Cahill (and other dynamic space theories similar to it such as the Awareness Model) is fully consistent with the results of the Michelson and Morley and Dayton Miller experiments.

2] Traditional Ether Theory is not fully consistent because it doesn’t predict the variations of speed which are seen.

3] Einstein Ether is not consistent because general relativity predicts that zero speed should be seen.

With respect to Einstein it should be remembered that he progressively changed his mind over time with respect to there being a motionless (sea like) ether. For example in a lecture that he delivered in 1924 Einstein said “…but every theory of local action assumes continuous fields and also the existence of an ether.” You will find two important statements made by Einstein with respect to his views about ether in my blog entitled “The great ether debate”. The quotation cited can be found therein.

I acknowledge that Einstein’s words were mostly related to his theory of General Relativity and that they had no specific relationship with his theory of Special relativity. However, I point out that Einstein in his statement in 1920 said that ether was necessary for his theory of General Relativity to make sense. My point is that how is it that when Einstein was working to develop a progressive unity theory of everything could he employ an ether continuum in one model and not the other. This is more especially so if you consider my blog entitled: “The inescapable duality of all things“. Einstein died before he could complete his unity theory.

It is only after Einstein began to change his mind about ether that around this time that the wider scientific community began to ignore Einstein’s views relating to ether. They saw ether as having no role in the continuing development of contemporary physics models. I also strongly believe that you should note Einstein’s concern about the null result or otherwise with the 1887 Michelson and Morley experiment (together with the later and more sophisticated experiments of Dayton Miller cited below). Einstein also questioned that both his Special and General Relativity theories would be invalid in their then current form. They would have become significantly different theories.

Einstein said with respect to this matter:

Quote:

“Should the positive result (meaning the Michelson – Morley experiment) be confirmed (it eventually wasn’t), then the special theory of relativity, and with it the general theory of relativity, in its current form, would be invalid. Experimentum summus judex. Only the equivalence of inertia and gravitation would remain. However, they would have to be a significantly different theory”

Source: Albert Einstein in a letter to Edwin E. Slosson, July 1925

I urge you to peruse Cahill’s opinion about ether theory as well as those of M Consoli and A. Pluchino commencing on page 445.

Additionally I suggest that you consider a detailed essay written by Loyd S. Swenson written on the same topic in 1970. The title of Swenson’s paper is “The Michelson-Morley-Miller experiments before and after 1905”.

I have drawn attention to the well documented divorce between physics theorists and experimentalists with respect to the long standing ether debate. What must be kept in mind with respect to this debate is that regardless of a disagreement between theorists and experimentalists is that there was no doubt in Isaac Newton’s mind that ether exists. He also expressed the opinion that there are small particles in the ether. (This seems to align with the debate about particles that exist in respect to the dynamic Awareness Model) that links local space foam to a non-local awareness continuum. Here is what Newton had to say about his concept of ether:

Quote:

“I do not know what this Aether is”, but that if it consists of particles then they must be exceedingly smaller than those of Air, or even than those of Light: The exceeding smallness of its Particles may contribute to the greatness of the force by which those Particles may recede from one another, and thereby make that Medium exceedingly more rare and elastic than Air, and by consequence exceedingly less able to resist the motions of Projectiles, and exceedingly more able to press upon gross Bodies, by endeavoring to expand itself.”

Source

Apart from the Michelson and Morley, Dayton Miller, Cahill, Ives and numerous other experiments relating to the existence and properties of an universal ether conducted over a period of nearly a century, contemporary physicists have never become convinced that a universal ether exists. Today I provide what I consider to be sound reasons as to why this universal reluctance by contemporary physicists to positively accept ether into their modelling should change. I present you with two references relating to ideas and experiments conducted by Morris to consolidate my position in this blog. These are a physics paper entitled “Perth-Muenster REG-REG Correlations: Remarkable New Evidence for Dynamical Space” and a separate open access repository (zip file)  archive supporting Morris’s paper with data.

The abstract for Morris’s paper is as follows:

Quote:

“We have obtained new evidence for dynamical space by applying correlation analysis to a year of data from a Random Event Generator (REG) device located in Perth, Australia and from another in Muenster, Germany, recorded between July 1, 2012 and June 30, 2013. The results obtained are consistent with results obtained by applying similar analysis to data from a REG located in Manchester UK and the REG in Perth. Consequently evidence for dynamical space is mounting. For each day we applied correlation analysis to determine travel times for putative waves. Then wave speed and direction, over each 24 hour period, were determined by fitting to the observed travel times, theoretical curves of how travel times would vary with Earth rotation. We thereby derived an average incoming RA, declination and speed for the waves of each day. A probability density plot of the incoming directions exhibited a peak near RA = 4.5 h, consistent with previous determinations of incoming space flow direction by Reginald Cahill and Dayton Miller. Moreover, removing Earth orbital and gravitational inflow velocities from the observed wave velocities allowed a peak of higher density to be obtained, which is consistent with predictions of Dynamical 3-Space theory. The peak indicated a most probable incoming galactic direction of RA = 4.50 h, dec = -80.6 deg. Probability density plots of speeds indicated a most probable incoming galactic speed of 502 km/s.”

I present this blog to you as a statement. It is a statement not only because of the explicit [local] contents herein but also in respect the words cited in my blogs entitled “Why is there no precise dividing line between microscopic and macroscopic phenomena” and “The inescapable duality of all “things”“.

This blog forms a unit of information with respect to my conceptual unity theory.